Validators & Full-Nodes
Full Node Streaming

Full Node GRPC Streaming

Last updated for: v4.1.4

This feature aims to provide real-time, accurate orderbook updates and fills. Complete orderbook activities and fills are streamed to the client and can be used to construct a full depth L3 orderbook. Streams are implemented using the existing GRPC query service from Cosmos SDK. Note that by dYdX V4’s optimistic orderbook design, the orderbook can be slightly different across different nodes.

This implementation maintains a length-configurable buffered queue of streaming updates to ensure slow or unresponsive clients do not induce full node lag during bursts of updates. If the buffer reaches maximum capacity, all connections and updates are dropped, and subscribers will have to re-subscribe. Metrics and logs are emitted on buffer length to help tune this parameter.

Enabling GRPC Streaming

CLI FlagTypeDefaultShort Explanation
grpc-streaming-enabledboolfalseToggle on to enable full node streaming. Can only be used when grpc is enabled.
grpc-streaming-buffer-sizeint1000Size of protocol-side updates buffer to maintain before dropping all messages and connections

Disclaimer: We recommend you use this exclusively with your own node, as supporting multiple public GRPC streams with unknown client subscriptions may result in degredated performance.

Consuming the gRPC Stream

To follow along with Google's documentation on gRPC streaming clients (opens in a new tab):

  1. Clone the (opens in a new tab) repository at same version as your full node.
  2. Generate the protos: make proto-gen && make proto-export-deps.
  3. The generated protos are now in the .proto-export-deps directory.
  4. Use the protobuf compiler (protoc) to generate stubs (opens in a new tab) in any supported language.
  5. Follow the documentation to write a streaming client.

For Python, the corresponding code is already generated in the v4-proto PyPi package (opens in a new tab).

Request / Response

To subscribe to the stream, the client can send a 'StreamOrderbookUpdatesRequest' specifying the clob pair ids to subscribe to.

// StreamOrderbookUpdatesRequest is a request message for the
// StreamOrderbookUpdates method.
message StreamOrderbookUpdatesRequest {
  // Clob pair ids to stream orderbook updates for.
  repeated uint32 clob_pair_id = 1;

Response will contain a oneof field that contains either:

  • StreamOrderbookUpdate
    • Contains one or more OffChainUpdateV1 orderbook updates (Add/Remove/Update)
    • boolean field indicating if the updates are coming from a snapshot or not.
  • StreamOrderbookFill
    • Contains a singular ClobMatch object describing a fill (order or liquidation).
      • Represents one taker order matched with 1 or more maker orders.
      • Matched quantums are provided for each pair in the match.
    • orders field contains full order information at time of matching. Contains all maker and taker orders involved in the ClobMatch object.
      • Prices within a Match are matched at the maker order price.
    • fill_amounts contains the absolute, total filled quantums of each order as stored in state.
      • fill_amounts should be zipped together with the orders field. Both arrays should have the same length.

as well as some debugging metadata about block_height and exec_mode. It is not advised to write business logic around exec_mode, as some of these values are used by the underlying cosmos-sdk and are implementation-specific.

// StreamOrderbookUpdatesResponse is a response message for the
// StreamOrderbookUpdates method.
message StreamOrderbookUpdatesResponse {
  // Orderbook updates for the clob pair.
  repeated StreamUpdate updates = 1 [ (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];

  // ---Additional fields used to debug issues---
  // Block height of the updates.
  uint32 block_height = 2;

  // Exec mode of the updates.
  uint32 exec_mode = 3;

// StreamUpdate is an update that will be pushed through the
// GRPC stream.
message StreamUpdate {
  // Contains one of an StreamOrderbookUpdate,
  // StreamOrderbookFill.
  oneof update_message {
    StreamOrderbookUpdate orderbook_update = 1;
    StreamOrderbookFill order_fill = 2;

// StreamOrderbookUpdate provides information on an orderbook update. Used in
// the full node GRPC stream.
message StreamOrderbookUpdate {
  // Orderbook updates for the clob pair. Can contain order place, removals,
  // or updates.
  repeated dydxprotocol.indexer.off_chain_updates.OffChainUpdateV1 updates = 1
      [ (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];

  // Snapshot indicates if the response is from a snapshot of the orderbook.
  // This is true for the initial response and false for all subsequent updates.
  // Note that if the snapshot is true, then all previous entries should be
  // discarded and the orderbook should be resynced.
  bool snapshot = 2;

// StreamOrderbookFill provides information on an orderbook fill. Used in
// the full node GRPC stream.
message StreamOrderbookFill {
  // Clob match. Provides information on which orders were matched
  // and the type of order.
  ClobMatch clob_match = 1;

  // All orders involved in the specified clob match. Used to look up
  // price of a match through a given maker order id.
  repeated Order orders = 2 [ (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];

  // Resulting fill amounts for each order in the orders array.
  repeated uint64 fill_amounts = 3 [ (gogoproto.nullable) = false ];

Maintaining a local orderbook

After subscribing to the orderbook updates, use the orderbook in the snapshot as the starting orderbook.


When OrderPlaceV1 is received, add the corresponding order to the end of the price level.

  • This message is only used to modify the orderbook data structure (Bids, Asks).
  • This message is sent out whenever an order is added to the in-memory orderbook.
  • This may occur in various places such as when an order is initially placed, or when an order is replayed during the ProcessCheckState step.
  • A Placement message will always be followed by an Update message.
func (l *LocalOrderbook) AddOrder(order v1types.IndexerOrder) {
	defer l.Unlock()
	if _, ok := l.OrderIdToOrder[order.OrderId]; ok {
		l.Logger.Error("order already exists in orderbook")
	subticks := order.GetSubticks()
	if order.Side == v1types.IndexerOrder_SIDE_BUY {
		if _, ok := l.Bids[subticks]; !ok {
			l.Bids[subticks] = make([]v1types.IndexerOrder, 0)
		l.Bids[subticks] = append(l.Bids[subticks], order)
	} else {
		if _, ok := l.Asks[subticks]; !ok {
			l.Asks[subticks] = make([]v1types.IndexerOrder, 0)
		l.Asks[subticks] = append(l.Asks[subticks], order)
	l.OrderIdToOrder[order.OrderId] = order
	l.OrderRemainingAmount[order.OrderId] = 0


When OrderUpdateV1 is received, update the order's fill amount to the amount specified.

  • This message is only used to update fill amounts. It carries information about an order's updated fill amount.
  • This message is sent out whenever an an order's fill amount changes from an action that isn't a ClobMatch.
  • This includes when deliverState is reset to the checkState from last block, or when branched state is written to and then discarded if there was a matching error.
  • An update message will always accompany an order placement message.
func (l *LocalOrderbook) SetOrderFillAmount(
	orderId *v1types.IndexerOrderId,
	fillAmount uint64,
) {
	defer l.Unlock()
	if fillAmount == 0 {
		delete(l.FillAmounts, *orderId)
	} else {
		l.FillAmounts[*orderId] = fillAmount


When OrderRemoveV1 is received, remove the order from the orderbook.

  • This message is only used to modify the orderbook data structure (Bids, Asks).
  • This message is emitted when an order is removed from the in-memory orderbook.
  • Note that this does not mean the fills are removed from state yet.
    • When fills are removed from state, a separate Update message will be sent with 0 quantum.
func (l *LocalOrderbook) RemoveOrder(orderId v1types.IndexerOrderId) {
	defer l.Unlock()
	if _, ok := l.OrderIdToOrder[orderId]; !ok {
		l.Logger.Error("order not found in orderbook")
	order := l.OrderIdToOrder[orderId]
	subticks := order.GetSubticks()
	if order.Side == v1types.IndexerOrder_SIDE_BUY {
		for i, o := range l.Bids[subticks] {
			if o.OrderId == order.OrderId {
				l.Bids[subticks] = append(
		if len(l.Bids[subticks]) == 0 {
			delete(l.Bids, subticks)
	} else {
		for i, o := range l.Asks[subticks] {
			if o.OrderId == order.OrderId {
				l.Asks[subticks] = append(
		if len(l.Asks[subticks]) == 0 {
			delete(l.Asks, subticks)
	delete(l.OrderIdToOrder, orderId)

Maintaining Order Fill Amounts


This message is only used to update fill amounts, it does not cause any modifications to the orderbook data structure (Bids, Asks).

The ClobMatch data structure contains either a MatchOrders or a MatchPerpetualLiquidation object. Match Deleveraging events are not emitted. Within each Match object, a MakerFill array contains the various maker orders that matched with the singular taker order and the amount of quantums matched.

Note that prices are always matched at the maker order price. The orders field in the StreamOrderbookFill object allow for price lookups based on order id. It contains all the maker order ids, and in the case of non-liquidation orders, it has the taker order.

Mapping each order in orders to the corresponding value in the fill_amounts field provides the absolute filled amount of quantums that each order is filled to after the ClobMatch was processed.

// fillAmountMap is a map of order ids to fill amounts.
// The SetOrderFillAmount code can be found in `the `OrderUpdateV1` section.
func (c *GrpcClient) ProcessMatchOrders(
	matchOrders *clobtypes.MatchOrders,
	orderMap map[clobtypes.OrderId]clobtypes.Order,
	fillAmountMap map[clobtypes.OrderId]uint64,
) {
	takerOrderId := matchOrders.TakerOrderId
	clobPairId := takerOrderId.GetClobPairId()
	localOrderbook := c.Orderbook[clobPairId]
	indexerTakerOrder := v1.OrderIdToIndexerOrderId(takerOrderId)
	localOrderbook.SetOrderFillAmount(&indexerTakerOrder, fillAmountMap[takerOrderId])
	for _, fill := range matchOrders.Fills {
		makerOrder := orderMap[fill.MakerOrderId]
		indexerMakerOrder := v1.OrderIdToIndexerOrderId(makerOrder.OrderId)
		localOrderbook.SetOrderFillAmount(&indexerMakerOrder, fillAmountMap[makerOrder.OrderId])
func (c *GrpcClient) ProcessMatchPerpetualLiquidation(
	perpLiquidation *clobtypes.MatchPerpetualLiquidation,
	orderMap map[clobtypes.OrderId]clobtypes.Order,
	fillAmountMap map[clobtypes.OrderId]uint64,
) {
	localOrderbook := c.Orderbook[perpLiquidation.ClobPairId]
	for _, fill := range perpLiquidation.GetFills() {
		makerOrder := orderMap[fill.MakerOrderId]
		indexerMakerOrderId := v1.OrderIdToIndexerOrderId(makerOrder.OrderId)
		localOrderbook.SetOrderFillAmount(&indexerMakerOrderId, fillAmountMap[makerOrder.OrderId])

Optimistic Orderbook Execution

By protocol design, each validator has their own version of the orderbook and optimistically processes orderbook matches. As a result, you may see interleaved sequences of order removals, placements, and state fill amount updates when optimistically processed orderbook matches are removed and later replayed on the local orderbook.

full node streaming diagram

Note that DeliverTx maps to exec mode execModeFinalize.

Example Scenario

  • Trader places a bid at price 100 for size 1
    • OrderPlace, price = 100, size = 1
    • OrderUpdate, total filled amount = 0
  • Trader replaces that original bid to be price 99 at size 2
    • OrderRemove
    • OrderPlace, price = 99, size = 2
    • OrderUpdate, total filled amount = 0
  • Another trader submits an IOC ask at price 100 for size 1.
    • Full node doesn't see this matching anything so no updates.
  • Block is confirmed that there was a fill for the trader's original order at price 100 for size 1 (BP didn't see the order replacement)
    • OrderUpdate, set total fill amount to be 0 (no-op) from checkState -> deliverState reset
    • MatchOrder emitted for block proposer's original order match, total filled amount = 1

Metrics and Logs

grpc_streaming_buffer_sizegaugeprotocol-side update buffer size
grpc_streaming_num_connectionsgaugenumber of grpc stream subscriptions

All logs from grpc streaming are tagged with module: grpc-streaming.


Q: Suppose the full node saw the cancellation of order X at t0 before the placement of the order X at t1. What would the updates be like?

  • A: No updates because the order was never added to the book

Q: A few questions because it often results in crossed books: In which cases shall we not expect to see OrderRemove message?

  • Post only reject? → PO reject won’t have a removal since they were never added to the book
  • IOC/FOK auto cancel? → IOC/FOK also won’t have a removal message for similar reason
  • Order expired outside of block window? → expired orders will generate a removal message
  • Passive limit order was fully filled → fully filled maker will generate a removal message
  • Aggressive limit order was fully filled? → fully filled taker won’t have a removal

Q: Why does StreamOrderbookUpdate use IndexerOrderId and StreamOrderbookFill use dydxprotocol.OrderId?

  • A: GRPC streaming exposes inner structs of the matching engine and our updates are processed differently from fills. The two data structures have equivalent fields, and a lightweight translation layer to go from Indexer OrderId to Protocol OrderId can be written.

Q: What are the exec modes?

	execModeCheck               = 0 // Check a transaction
	execModeReCheck             = 1 // Recheck a (pending) transaction after a commit
	execModeSimulate            = 2 // Simulate a transaction
	execModePrepareProposal     = 3 // Prepare a block proposal
	execModeProcessProposal     = 4 // Process a block proposal
	execModeVoteExtension       = 5 // Extend or verify a pre-commit vote
	execModeVerifyVoteExtension = 6 // Verify a vote extension
	execModeFinalize            = 7 // Finalize a block proposal
	ExecModeBeginBlock          = 100
	ExecModeEndBlock            = 101
	ExecModePrepareCheckState   = 102

Q: I only want to listen to confirmed updates. I do not want to process optimistic fills.

  • A: You will want to only process messages from DeliverTx stage (execModeFinalize). This step is when we save proposed matches from the block proposer into state. These updates will have exec mode execModeFinalize.

Q: Why do I see an Order Update message for a new OrderId before an Order Place message?

  • A: During DeliverTx, the first step we do is to reset fill amounts (via OrderUpdate messages) for all orders involved in the proposed and local operations queue due to the deliver state being reset to the check state from last block. We "reset" fill order amounts to 0 for orders that the block proposer has seen but has not gossiped to our full node yet. In the future, we may reduce the number of messages that are sent, but for now we are optimizing for orderbook correctness.