Short-term vs Stateful

*Note: “Placed” in this document refers to an order which has gone through taker order matching via memclob.PlaceOrder. An order can exist in state without having been placed yet.*

For more details on definitions, see the v4-chain repo here (opens in a new tab).

purposeShort-lived orders which are meant to placed immediately (in the same block the order was received). These orders stay in-memory up to 20 blocks, with only their fill amount and expiry block height being committed to state. Intended for use by market makers with high throughput, or for market orders. IoC and FoK orders are also considered short-term orders. Short-term orders do not survive a network restart.
  • • User would send a short-term transaction to a validator
  • • The transaction needs to contain exactly one Cosmos msg, and that msg is a MsgPlaceOrder (opens in a new tab)
  • • Each validator has a MsgProposedOperations (opens in a new tab), which is one validator’s view of the operations queue
  • • In the context of short-term orders, the block proposer should eventually be gossiped the short-term order and have it in their MsgProposedOperations
  • • The block proposer would then optimistically place the short-term order in CheckTx (opens in a new tab)
  • • Matches that short term orders were included in block during MsgProposedOperations would be included in block for all the validators in the network during DeliverTx (opens in a new tab)
Long-lived orders which may execute far in the future. These orders should not be lost during a validator restart (placed in the block after the order was received). In the event a validator restarts, all stateful orders are placed back onto the in-memory orderbook (opens in a new tab). Likely to be used primarily by retail traders. The front end would be sending stateful orders for all order types other than market orders.

Two types of stateful orders:

1. Long-Term Orders
• meant to be added to the orderbook as soon as possible. Due to certain technical limitations, long-term orders are placed in the block after they are written to state. E.g. if MsgPlaceOrder is included in block N, taker order matching would occur for the long-term order in block N+1.
• Order types requiring immediate execution such as fill-or-kill / immediate-or-cancel are disallowed as these should be placed as short term orders; Long-term FoK/IoC orders would never be maker orders, so there is no benefit to writing them to state.

2. Conditional Orders
• execute when the oracle price becomes either LTE or GTE to specified trigger price, depending on the type of conditional order (e.g. stop loss sell = LTE, take profit buy = GTE)
• orders are placed in the block after their condition is met and they become triggered
• it is possible for a conditional order to become triggered in the same block they are initially written to state in. Conditional orders are placed in block ≥ N+1.
placement messageMsgPlaceOrderMsgPlaceOrder, long term or conditional order flag enabled on MsgPlaceOrder.Order.OrderId.OrderFlags
• valid OrderFlags values are 32 (conditional) and 64 (long-term) for stateful orders
cancellation messageMsgCancelOrder

Short term cancellations are handled best-effort, meaning they are only gossiped and not included in MsgProposedOperations
MsgCancelOrder, long term or conditional order flag enabled on MsgCancelOrder.OrderId.OrderFlags
expirationsGood-Till-Block (GTB)

Short term orders have a maximum GTB of current block height + ShortBlockWindow (opens in a new tab). Currently this value is 20 blocks, or about 30 seconds. Short term orders can only be GTB because in the interest of being resilient to chain halts or slowdowns.
Good-Till-Block-Time (GTBT)

Stateful orders have a maximum GTBT of current block time + StatefulOrderTimeWindow (opens in a new tab). Currently this value is 95 days.

GTBT is used instead of GTB to give a more meaningful expiration time for stateful orders.
inclusion in blockOperationRaw_ShortTermOrderPlacement inside MsgProposedOperations.OperationsQueue which is an app-injected message in the proposal. Included if and only if the short term order is included in a match.Normal cosmos transaction. The original Tx which included the MsgPlaceOrder or MsgCancelOrder would be included directly in the block.
signature verificationShort-term orders must undergo custom signature verification because they are included in an app-injected transaction.

The memclob stores each short term order placement’s raw transaction bytes in the memclob. When the order is included in a match, an OperationRaw_ShortTermOrderPlacement operation is included in MsgProposedOperations which contains these bytes.

During DeliverTx, we decode the raw transaction bytes into a transaction object and pass the transaction through the app’s antehandler which executes signature verification. If signature verification fails, the MsgProposedOperations execution returns an error and none of the operations are persisted to state. Operations for a given block is all-or-nothing, meaning all operations execute or none of them execute.
Normal cosmos transaction signature verification, executed by the app’s antehandler.
replay preventionKeep orders in state until after Good-Till-Block aka expiry (even if fully-filled or cancelled)Cosmos SDK sequence numbers, verified to be strictly increasing in the app’s antehandler.

Note that their use of sequence numbers requires stateful orders to be received in order otherwise they would fail. If placing multiple stateful orders they should be sent to the same validator to prevent issues.
time placed (matching logic)CheckTx, immediately after placement transaction is received by the validator.

Short term orders are only included in a block when matched. See “time added to state” below.
long-term: Block N+1 in PrepareCheckState (opens in a new tab) where MsgPlaceOrder was included in block N
conditional: Block N+1 PrepareCheckState where the order was triggered in EndBlocker of block N
what is stored in stateOrderAmountFilledKeyPrefix:
• key = OrderId
• value = OrderFillAmount & PrunableBlockHeight

• key = block height
• value = list of potentially prunable OrderIds

PrunableBlockHeight holds the block height at which we can safely remove this order from state. BlockHeightToPotentiallyPrunableOrders stores a list of order ids which we can prune for a certain block height. These are used in conjunction for replay prevention of short term orders

• key = OrderId
• value = Order

• key = time
• value = list of OrderIds expiring at this GTBT

• key = OrderId
• value = OrderFillAmount & PrunableBlockHeight (prunable block height unused for stateful orders)
time added to stateDeliverTx when part of a match included in MsgProposedOperationsStatefulOrderPlacementKeyPrefix and StatefulOrdersTimeSlice: DeliverTx, the MsgPlaceOrder (opens in a new tab) is executed for MsgPlaceOrder msgs included in the block. The handler performs stateful validation, a collateralization check, and writes the order to state. Stateful orders are also written to the checkState in CheckTx for spam mitigation purposes.

OrderAmountFilledKeyPrefix: DeliverTx, when part of a match included in MsgProposedOperations
time removed from stateAlways in EndBlocker (opens in a new tab) based off of prunable block height• cancelled by user: removed from state in DeliverTx for MsgCancelOrder
• forcefully-cancelled by protocol: removed from state in DeliverTx when processing OperationRaw_OrderRemoval operation. This operation type is included by the proposer in MsgProposedOperations when a stateful order is no longer valid. Removal reasons listed here (opens in a new tab)
• fully-filled: removed from state in DeliverTx in the block in which they become fully filled. The order is added to RemovedStatefulOrderIds of processProposerMatchesEvents to be used in EndBlocker to remove from the in-memory orderbook.
• expired: pruned during EndBlocker based off of GTBT

also removed from state in CheckTx for cancellations. This is for spam mitigation purposes.
time added to in-memory orderbookWhen placed in CheckTx, if not fully-matchedWhen placed in PrepareCheckState, if not fully-matched
time removed from in-memory orderbook• when fully-filled: removed in PrepareCheckState where invalid memclob state is purged via fully filled orders present in OrderIdsFilledInLastBlock
• when cancelled: (CheckTx)
• when expired: PrepareCheckState, removed using memclob.openOrders.blockExpirationsForOrders data structure which stores expiration times for short term orders based off of GTB
• when fully-filled: removed in PrepareCheckState where we purge invalid memclob state based off of RemovedStatefulOrderIds
• when cancelled: removed in PrepareCheckState based off of PlacedStatefulCancellations
• when expired: removed in PrepareCheckState by PurgeInvalidMemclobState, using the list of ExpiredStatefulOrderIds produced in EndBlocker

dYdX Chain is open source software. dYdX does not control or operate any protocol running the dYdX Chain software. All use of dYdX Chain software and documentation are subject to dYdX v4 terms of use and licensing requirements. dYdX products and services are not available to U.S., Canadian and other Restricted Persons, defined in the v4 Terms of Use (opens in a new tab).